Initially, the assumption was that cloned chips would be spotted because their key codes would not match those stored in an international database. However, only 10 of the 45 countries participating in the e-passport program have signed up to for the Public Key Directory (PKD) code system, and only five are currently using it. On top of all that, the research also suggests that biometric data could also be manipulated and implemented into fake passports.At this point, there has been no evidence to suggest that an e-passport has been successfully cloned and passed off as genuine in a real-life situation—but it is bound to happen unless every country buys into the PKD. Even then, I still have my doubts about long-term security. We all know that it's only a matter of time before someone figures out how to manipulate the system.